Quality of Life: Effects of Physical Activity in an Anthropometric, Cognitive and Psychosocial Background, and Variation of Odontoiatric Parameters

Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Domenico Tripodi, Simonetta D'Ercole, Ilaria Pecoraro, Carlo Bosna, Giovanni Barassi, Giacomo Melle, Annamaria Porreca, Raoul Saggini


The "Quality of Life" project arises from the need to observe and define the existing interconnection between a "healthy" lifestyle and the quality of life perceived by people. Starting from the W.H.O. (World Health Organization) definitions of quality of life and health, and analyzing the studies that describe the benefits of both movement physical and mental, a protocol three months has been set for the pursuit of a diet and personalized training. For this purpose, 20 healthy subjects from the 1st year of the Physiotherapy degree, who had never practiced sports at an agonistic level, have been recruited. All individuals were subject to initial evaluations to define psycho-physical wellbeing, then they have been divided into two groups: the first group, defined as experimental, followed the protocol for the duration of the study, while the second, was only subject to evaluation. At the end of the three months period, the subjects of both groups were evaluated twice, the first immediately after the last training session, the second was evaluated one month from the latter. The final evaluation aimed at verifying a possible conservative effect on modification of experimental group parameters, even when physical activity and nutrition were not supervised by us. The ultimate goal of the project was to specifically analyze, after three months, the changes in cognitive memory capacity and concentration, the stress experienced in work or study, and psycho-physical wellbeing perceived by the concerned subjects. Data collected during the three evaluations showed that, in the experimental group, as our scientific protocol has altered all these parameters in terms of quality of life in positive terms, modifications are susceptible to changes in the event that physical activity and proper nutrition are not followed.


quality of life; well-being; health; sport

Full Text:



World Health Organization, Health Promotion Glossary 1998.

Yates, L.B. et al., Exceptional longevity in men: Modifiable factors associated with survival and function to age 90 years. Arch Intern Med, 2008. 168 (3): p. 284-90.

Willett, W.C., Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention. Science, 2002. 296 (5568): p. 695-8.

Waxman, A. and W.H. Assembly, WHO global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Food Nutr Bull, 2004. 25 (3): p. 292-302.

Majani, G., [On quality of life]. G Ital Cardiol, 1996. 26 (6): p. 689-97.

Fletcher, G. F., et al., Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2001. 104 (14): p. 1694-740.

Thune, I. and A.S. Furberg, Physical activity and cancer risk: dose-response and cancer, all sites and site-specific. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33 (6 Suppl): p. S530-50; discussion S609-10.

Kaminsky, L., et al., ACSM's resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 2006.

Haskell, W.L., et al., Physical Activity and Public Health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007. 39 (8): p. 1423-34.

Williams, M.A., et al., Resistance exercise in individuals with or without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism. Circulation, 2007. 116 (5): p. 572-84.

Pedersen, B.K. and B. Saltin, Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2006. 16 Suppl 1: p. 3-63.

Marcus, B.H., et al., Physical activity intervention studies: What we know and what we need to know: a Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation, 2006. 114 (24): p. 2739-52.

Bowes, A., J. Begley, and D. Kerr, Lifestyle change reduces cardiometabolic risk factors and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in obese first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet, 2017.

Schäfer, S., et al., Lifestyle intervention in individuals with normal vs. impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Invest, 2007. 37 (7): p. 535-43.

Tuomilehto, J., et al., Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med, 2001. 344 (18): p. 1343-50.

Wen, H. and L. Wang, Reducing effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of essential hypertensive patients: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 2017. 96 (11): p. E6150.

Lin, X. Y., et al., [The effect of different intensity aerobic exercise training on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients.]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi, 2009. 48 (12): p. 1023-5.

Ross, R. and I. Janssen, Physical activity, total and regional obesity: dose-response considerations. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33 (6 Suppl): p. S521-7; discussion S528-9.

Slentz, C.A., et al., Effects of the exercise on body weight, body composition and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE - a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med, 2004. 164 (1): p. 31-9.

Santos, C. et al., Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPD: Effect of 2 Aerobic Exercise Intensities on Subject-Centered Outcomes - A Randomized Controlled Trial. Respir Care, 2015. 60 (11): p. 1603-9.

Bavarsad, M.B., et al., The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 2015. 20 (5): p. 613-8.

Abell, B., P. Glasziou - T. Hoffmann, Exploration of methodological quality and clinical usefulness of cross-sectional sample of published guidance on exercise training and physical activity for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. BMC Cardiovasc. Disord., 2017. 17 (1): p. 153.

Pearson, M.J. and N.A. Smart, Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Heart Failure: A systematic review meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol, 2017. 231: p. 234-243.

Lee, I.M. and P.J. Skerrett, Physical activity and all-cause mortality: what is the dose-response relationship? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33 (6 Suppl): p. S459-71; discussion S493-4.

Myers, J., et al., Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med, 2002. 346 (11): p. 793-801.

Yusuf, S., et al., Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet, 2004. 364 (9438): p. 937-52.

Rocha, E., [Comment on "Physical Activity Levels, Ownership of Goods Promoting Sedentary Behavior and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Results of the INTERHEART Study"]. Rev Port Cardiol, 2013. 32 (4): p. 359-60.

Kendall, F., E. Kendall, and McCreary, The Muscles. Functions and tests with posture and pain. 2005.

Saggini, R. and R. Bellomo, Rehabilitation treatment in the child's foot by increasing proprioception with vibratory and multi-sensory methods. In: Memeo A, Donelli F. The infant foot. ISNB: 9788854867772. DOI: 10.4399 / 97888548677727., P. Iodice, L. Di Pancrazio, and M. Migliorini, Editors. 2013. p. pag. 89-103

Saggini, R. and R. Bellomo, The ankle-ankle system in Sport Medicine, in: Ridola CG, Foti C, Francavilla G, Clinical physiology of motor activity. Motor activity, rehabilitation and posture. ISBN: 9788876765971. p. 63-67.

Karahan, A. and N. Bayraktar, Determination of the use of body mechanics in clinical settings and the occurrence of low back pain in nurses. Int J Nurs Stud, 2004. 41 (1): p. 67-75.

Sharma, L., et al., The role of knee alignment in disease progression and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis. JAMA, 2001. 286 (2): p. 188-95.

Hales, T.R., et al., Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal users in a telecommunications company. Ergonomics, 1994. 37 (10): p. 1603-21.

Elahi, S., et al., The association between varus-valgus alignment and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 2000. 43 (8): p. 1874-80.

Marcus, M., et al., Prospective study of computer users: II. Postural risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Am J Ind Med, 2002. 41 (4): p. 236-49.

Lawlor, D.A. and S.W. Hopker, The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ, 2001. 322 (7289): p. 763-7.

Hayes, D. and C.E. Ross, Body and Mind: the effect of exercise, overweight, and physical health on psychological well-being. J Health Soc Behav, 1986. 27 (4): p. 387-400.

Fox, K. R., The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutr, 1999. 2 (3A): p. 411-8.

Wittberg, R.A., K.L. Northrup, and L.A. Cottrell, Children's aerobic fitness and academic achievement: a longitudinal examination of students during their fifth and seventh grade years. Am J Public Health, 2012. 102 (12): p. 2303-7.

Singh, A., et al., Physical activity and performance at school: a systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med, 2012. 166 (1): p. 49-55.

El Ansari, W. and C. Stock, Is the health and wellbeing of University students associated with their academic performance? Cross-sectional findings from the United Kingdom. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2010. 7 (2): p. 509-27.

O'Donnell, T. and G. Gray, The Health Promoting College. 1993, Health Education Authority: London, UK

Penedo, F.J. and J.R. Dahn, Exercise and Well-Being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 2005. 18 (2): p. 189-93.

Hillman, C. H., K.I. Erickson, and A.F. Kramer, Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2008. 9 (1): p. 58-65.

Fleshner, M., Exercise and neuroendocrine regulation of antibody production: Protective effect of physical activity on stress-induced suppression of specific antibody response. Int J Sports Med, 2000. 21 Suppl 1: p. S14-9.

Winter, B., et al., High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem, 2007. 87 (4): p. 597-609.

van Praag, H., G. Kempermann, and F.H. Gage, Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse gyrus dentate. Nat Neurosci, 1999. 2 (3): p. 266-70.

Schinder, A.F. and M. Poo, The neurotrophin hypothesis for synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci, 2000. 23 (12): p. 639-45.

Locker, D., et al., Oral health-related quality of life of a population of physically compromised elderly people. Community Dent Health, 2002. 19 (2): p. 90-7.

Inglehart, M. and R. Bagramian, Oral health-related quality of life: an introduction. In: Oral health-related quality of life. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co. 2002.

Tobiasen, J.M., et al., Type of facial cleft, associated congenital malformations, and parents' ratings of school and behavior problems. Cleft Palate J, 1987. 24 (3): p. 209-15.

Schneiderman, C.R. and J.B. Harding, Social ratings of children with cleft lip by school peers. Cleft Palate J, 1984. 21 (3): p. 219-23.

Van Demark, D.R. and A.A. Van Demark, Speech and socio-vocational aspects of individuals with cleft palate. Cleft Palate J, 1970 7: p. 284-99.

Trochimiak, T. and E. Hübner-Woźniak, Effect of exercise on the level of immunoglobulin a in saliva. Biol Sport, 2012. 29 (4): p. 255-61.

Needleman, I. et al., Infographic: oral health in elite athletes. Br J Sports Med, 2017. 51 (9): p. 757.

D'Ercole, S., et al., The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes. J Appl Oral Sci. 2016 Apr; 24 (2): 107-13. doi: 10.1590 / 1678-775720150324.

D'Ercole, S. and D. Tripodi, The effect of swimming on oral ecological factors. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013 Apr-Jun; 27 (2): 551-8.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23756/sp.v5i2.371


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Rosa Grazia Bellomo et al.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Science & Philosophy - Journal of Epistemology, Science and Philosophy. ISSN 2282-7757; eISSN  2282-7765.