Scientific-Philosophical definition of life

Klaus Fröhlich


There are about 100 different contradictory definitions of life. The definition of life based on symbiosis that is presented here differs fundamentally from them; it gives life a value. So this definition offers a basis for ethical and legal action e.g. in organ transplants. It is based on principles and is not an ad hoc model: Significant processes for life are basis for a theoretical concept. Quality criteria for definitions are employed to control the concept. There is a graduation, not a clear division, between inanimate and animate. The graduation is based on the amount of symbiosis to be found. Life is based on symbiosis. The ideas of “ethics” and “reality” are considered in the context of this definition.


Definition of Life; Biology and Ethic; Symbiotic

Full Text:



- Umberto Pagano, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Italy;


- Simone D'Alessandro, University of Chieti-Pescara. Italy.


- Jorge Julián Sánchez Martínez, ACESyD, S.L., CEO. C/Maestro Clavé 1, pta. 6. 46001 Valencia (Spain);



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Klaus Fröhlich

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Science & Philosophy - Journal of Epistemology, Science and Philosophy. ISSN 2282-7757; eISSN  2282-7765.