S & P: Ethics


Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:

  1. The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  2. The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)). The journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  3. Changes in authorship, or in the order of authors, are not accepted after the acceptance for publication of a manuscript.
  4. No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  5. No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material.
  6. Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  7. Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results.

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.